The Fireman’s Guide to Main Street: 5 Buildings to Know, Part 3

Alexis Shady & Chris Tobin

There is a quote that I believe represents the vast majority of the fire service concerning buildings, it reads;

“Many an object is not seen, though it falls within the range of our visual ray, because it does not come within the range of our intellectual ray.”

Thoreau, Henry

Simply put, we all see buildings but few understand what they’re actually looking at. That’s a problem, a really big problem and for two important reasons; which are a building is the one thing that directly or indirectly effects everything we do on the fireground, and the only thing we can do about a compromised building is avoid it entirely. We show up with no solution to sagging roofs, crumbling walls, or missing floors other than staying away. We can mitigate smoke, fire, and rescue trapped victims but we can do nothing about the leaning wall. It’s this stark reality that many forget and have paid the price. You can know all there is about fire behavior, your tools and strategies, none of which hold any value if you’re unfamiliar with the space in which they are relied upon. Some may say all fires are the same, which is true until you put one in a building. Behind every door are an infinite amount of variables, some known, some unknown, and some unexpected. This is why nothing’s routine till it’s over and why knowing your buildings on a visceral level is paramount. If you want to be able to forward think you must understand the data you’re receiving.

This will be a five part series exclusively examining five different types of legacy construction, each with its own article as it pertains to firefighting. The types of buildings were selected based on their prominence in today’s main streets and historic districts. These specific types of buildings exist in small towns from coast to coast but more commonly found East of the Mississippi River where our national building stock originated before moving Westward. 

The five buildings are the old house, the taxpayer, the old mill, the vacant theater, and the bowling alley. Each of these will be examined along with inherent hazards and a play book for handling fires specific to each occupancy. Additionally since many of these buildings are found in small towns with departments that may not have the adequate resources, there will be a section based on short staffed responses for each. The objective of this series is to present the most useful amount of information in the least amount of space. Each of these buildings are worthy of their own book in themselves, this series is meant to be concise and simple information for any level of firefighter. As with any article on architecture, regional vernacular and Departmental jargon may vary. Nothing in this piece is the final say, only the individual reader and their streets can make that claim. 

Part 3

The Building

The old mill: What would a town be without the mill? Nonexistent, that’s what. Unless you’re in a planned bedroom community platted in the 21st century then it’s highly likely your town grew around industry during the American Industrial Revolution. Such times gave us terms like “mill town”, “company town,” “factory house,” and “mill village.” The first mills were built in the countryside along powerful waterways and were wheel driven. The advent of steam power did away with this type of construction, and lead to the hulking heavy timbered factories that would dominate the landscape for the next century.

It was due to both the prevalence and their inherent construction features that so many of these buildings still exist in towns all over America. Textile mills were more common in New England, but as with everything else that expanded westward, so did industry and its buildings. Whether you lived in the corn belt, rust belt, or the cotton belt didn’t matter. Every town needed jobs, and those jobs were in one of many large factories that were surrounded by neighborhoods of their workers.

The term “mill type construction” originally in reference to the large New England textile mills is now used interchangeably with any such type four heavy timber factory. These buildings are exclusively legacy or heritage era construction with rough cut sawn timbers and joinery. The exterior walls are noncombustible masonry that are a thicker wythe at the bottom. Generally 24 to 36 inches thick at the ground level and tapering up as the building rose in height to typically no more than six stories. All four walls will be load bearing. Type lV “heavy timber” can be numerous types of occupancies such as churches, gymnasiums, and even residential. Mill type is a subtype of this construction, specifically referring to commercial use, such as factories or warehouses with masonry walls and specific dimensions on components such as floors and roof decking. It all comes down to what building code was used, and when it was published. It’s important the reader understand that Type lV construction can exist in numerous types of occupancies such as places of worship, lofts or restaurants, not just old mills; even though the construction features are the same. This article will be focusing solely on Type lV heavy timber mill type buildings.

The definition of Type IV heavy timber is commonly confused with Type V heavy timber wood framed buildings such as heritage framed construction or old barns. While the heavy timber framing may exist, Type V is still a wood framed building, thus not mill type construction due to the lack of masonry walls. There can be some variance amongst building codes, however all adhere to the minimum dimensions for heavy timber mill construction which is defined by the NFPA as follows:

– Noncombustible exterior load bearing walls.

– Main framing members being no less than eight inches by eight inches.

– Wood columns supporting solely roof members shall be no less than six by eight inches.

– Beams and girders supporting floor loads shall be no less than six by ten inches.

– Beams and girders supporting roof members shall be no less than four by six inches.

The idea behind heavy timber is its inherent fire protection based on mass. Simply put the beams will char, while structural integrity isn’t effected as severely as smaller diameter wood. While heavy timber is typically slower to ignite, once ignited it conversely has the potential to become unstoppable. This was no secret and why Mills were designed in quarters or thirds separated by true fire walls with fusible linked rated metal clad fire doors. The first automatic fire sprinkler systems were also installed in these buildings as early as 1874. These buildings were designed around the idea of passive fire protection in a time when fires were devastating the textile industry. These passive construction features will be a major part of any modern attack strategy, the key is knowing how to use them effectively during operations.

The Hazards

The connections between columns and girders are far more susceptible to collapse than the beams themselves. The connections were often made of cast iron, which we already know is unreliable and fails at variable temperatures, unlike steel which has uniform failure points. Additionally, cast iron fails completely and catastrophically without warning. This is due to how the fire effects the variance in the casting process, not cold water hitting hot metal. In some cases there were cast iron floor columns as well. Depending on the load requirements for the building some floors would have cast iron columns and others heavy timber. It just depended on what the manufacturer wanted.

The floors of these buildings also pose a special hazard over time. Layers of floor, typically layered tongue and groove (also known as planks) made up the flooring system. Years of chemical spills, and oil from machinery add risk. Cold storage facilities typically had a coating applied to help preserve the wood and keep the floors from being slippery add yet another layer of risk. These both can make floors a fire hazard as they speed up the combustion process which obviously then increases collapse risk. You could also expect to see floor joists in these buildings having fire cuts. Fire cuts are angled cuts at the ends of beams along the exterior masonry walls. The purpose of these cuts was to maintain structural integrity of the exterior walls, having the interior floors collapse inward, onto themselves instead of forcing the walls out. Great for exterior firefighters, not so great for ones inside. Keep in mind fire cuts were designed in an era before interior firefighting with the idea of keeping the exterior operations safe

Lack of windows, whether from original construction or bricked in later significantly reduce the ability to vent these fires. Few entrances also make safe operations a concern. Another hazard created when one of these buildings becomes vacant are the presence of unmarked open shafts. When workers are present or the buildings routinely preplanned, elevator and freight lifts are known and marked, or railed for the workers safety. These things become absent when an old mill falls into disrepair. Railings are scrapped, lifts are removed, and what’s left is an unmarked, unknown large opening spanning multiple floors. The obvious fall hazard, combined with a now unprotected shaft acting as an interior chimney, should be an immediate red flag for anyone arriving on scene of an old vacant mill. These unprotected openings also allow for rapid vertical fire spread, so checking for extension on upper floors is key.

Even after the fires out one often often over looked hazard is the post fire collapse zone. These buildings will burn and smolder for days and without constant supervision the collapse zone becomes less enforced with time. Crews from different shifts may arrive days later and meander into an area with deadly consequences. The walls of these buildings will stay free standing up to heights of many stories and fall without warning. Keep any collapse zone set up at the time of the fire clearly marked with tape even after the fires out.

The Playbook

The interior ops margin for mill type construction is narrow. These fires are either catastrophic block long conflagrations or mundane rubbish burning from vagrants or industrial processes. The play here is for the few fires that are still vent limited and deep seated, requiring interior lines stretched, searches for both fire or victims, and interior exposure protection.

Confinement is key, use the inherent construction features to your advantage. The closing of the fire doors should be an early task done simultaneously with line advancement. The firewalls in these buildings were constructed of non load bearing isolated masonry that goes from the basement up through the roof. There will be fire doors on each level typically directly above one another in the floor plan. The worst case scenario is a well off fire of unknown location. This will be even further complicated if it’s discovered sub grade in a basement. These buildings lack basement windows and stair wells are very small; making the idea of laboriously advancing a large diameter line into zero visibility vent limited conditions seem suicidal.

Tag lines while good in theory, will be of no practical use with stock or palletized goods to maneuver around. Members not operating on a hose line must have a TIC. Becoming lost and low on air is a high probability in these buildings. Accountability and forward thinking of committing members inside must be at a higher level of scrutiny due to this risk. Multiple RITs should be assigned due to the size and reflex/travel time requirements. Too much manpower is just as much of a problem as too little. Use your crews accordingly and diligently, not wasting manpower on things such as utilities or lesser important tasks at hand. Searches must be limited to reflect good intel and not comprehensive like on typical residential fires. You can not send crews searching into oblivion, these buildings demand a conservative search strategy. If you have an employee onsite, it’s imperative a role call is done to account for the workers.

Once the life safety objectives have been addressed, the fire must be located and the fire doors closed. If the fire can’t be located but the doors can be shut, then you’ll soon find out what section you’ve written off. If the fire can’t be located and doors not shut, then you will lose the building and every piece of property in it.

Once the fires been located, it’s a battle against time and GPM. Keep in mind a small fire in a big building is actually a big fire anywhere else. Don’t let the optics play tricks on you. What seems like a one line fire may in reality take multiple lines and even master streams to extinguish. If conditions have not improved after 10-15 minutes, start considering a shift to confinement over extinguishment. It’s better to save 3/4s of a building than none at all. Once the fire has extended up through multiple floors it’s no longer extinguishable from the inside. Lapping will soon follow once the fire reaches the windows. Now you’re confronted with horizontal interior fire spread and exterior vertical fire spread by combustible window frames. You can see how narrow the margin is for successful interior operations. You will only have one shot with an interior attack.

The decision to transfer to interior confinement over extinguishment can be based on some benchmarks.

– Interior streams showing no improvement in conditions.

– Fire showing on more than one floor upon arrival.

– Unable to locate the fire for an extended period of time under deteriorating conditions.

– Hazardous material making a direct attack unsafe.

– Localized structural integrity problems such as a portion under construction, floors missing, etc. making entry into the involved section impractical.

Confinement is a last chance strategy to save the remaining unaffected parts of the building and its property. This strategy should only be attempted when there are no indicators of compromised structural integrity, and the fire hasn’t spread to multiple floors for an extended period of time. If the building is sectioned off by firewalls, the decision needs to be made on where to hold the fire. Depending on conditions this may be the next closest fire wall or two sections away if it’s a fast moving fire or resources are slow to deploy. The objective is to hold the fire doors containing the spread of fire to the original section of origin as much as possible. These buildings may carry large quantities of stored products so as with any property conservation strategy, the risk should be taken accordingly. Interior streams and personnel should be positioned on the protected sides of firewalls only long enough to set up portable ground monitors. Once the interior streams are in place aerial master streams should be positioned at the upwind side of the fire wall and directed onto anything burning through the roof. If the fire doors are missing or the fire walls have been compromised this tactic shouldn’t be attempted and operations should transfer into a defensive posture using only exterior master streams. Unfortunately, due the robustness of heavy timber roof construction, fire will spread horizontally unchecked from one section to another instead of quickly burning through like in other types of construction. This makes exterior master streams completely ineffective when trying to stay ahead of the fire. Roof ops are limited to existing openings such as skylights, roof top stairwells, and HVAC vents. Keep roof crews on the protected sides of firewalls if they’re monitoring conditions. Don’t waste the resources on heavy timber roofs, the fire will likely outpace you with tradition vertical ventilation tactics. Once exterior operations are warranted, position aerial master streams at corners and junctures of firewalls in long runs of masonry walls. After resources are positioned it’s then a war of water, from here GPM wins the day.

The Short Staffed Response

Manpower! Manpower! Manpower! Followed by water and even more water. The bigger the structure, the more people you will need. It’s important for Officers to have a clear understanding of their departments resources, and even more so, their limitations. Remember, fires in these structures can be deceiving. Like we discussed above, what appears to be a small fire in these buildings can be rather large, purely due to the size of the structure, and you need to be prepared. These fires are definitely what one would consider a high risk, low frequency event, so extra command staff may prove to be beneficial. Accountability and continuous 360’s will be important for safety on these fires. Extra eyes on the outside can also help identify fire spread on additional floors, as it may look contained to an interior crew. Depending on the size and location of the fire, you may want to consider assigning division or operations chiefs, as well as water supply management responsibilities to additional officers. Doing so allows command to focus on the bigger picture.

Accept the fact that complete interior searches will be next to impossible to complete safely due to the size and complexity of these structures without adequate manpower and prior training on large area search. Even more so than the other fires we’ve discussed, preplanning is key. Command needs to know how long it will take mutual aid or additional staffing to arrive on scene. Preset mutual aid assignments can potentially help with these response times. Prior knowledge of the building such as location of utilities and the interior layout for the location of open elevator shafts, fire doors, and all available exits will help ensure the safety of your crews. Having contact information for maintenance staff or the owner readily available can help you as well if you don’t have floor plans on hand. You’ll also want to consider additional water sources as the use of aerials have the potential to quickly overpower the nearest hydrants depending on pressure available.

Unlike taxpayer fires, where we suggested the use of the smaller diameter hose due to low manpower and maneuverability; selecting the larger diameter hose may be the key to these fires. The likelihood of deploying more than one attack line is high as well, and closing the fire doors as mentioned above should be a priority. Two more reasons manpower is important. Because there are few walls throughout the large open space, fire spreads rapidly, and your stream may need to be able to reach from the stairwell to the far corner before conditions allow you to advance, yet another reason to choose the 2.5”. One benefit to the open space, is that there are few concealed spaces allowing hidden fire spread, which in theory should make finding the seat of the fire easier.

While fires in these buildings are considered difficult to start due to the low surface-to-mass ratio, they expand quickly. It is important that you acknowledge your department’s limits, and understand that these fires can quickly overwhelm even a well staffed urban department’s resources. That fact, combined with response times, manpower, and collapse risks, may make defensive operations your only option.

Remember, a small fire in a big building is a big fire anywhere else. Manage your resources wisely and don’t be afraid to change tactics if you’re not seeing changes. Utilize the inherent construction features to your advantage. In theory, with a quick response and enough manpower, if you can get to the fire, you can put it out. That is, if you have enough water.

Citations

Due to the nature of how common trade knowledge, jargon, terminology and methods are passed down amongst the fire service much of the articles information can not be cited as a proprietary source to one particular piece of work, individual, group or otherwise.

Dunn V. Collapse of Burning Buildings: a Guide to Fireground Safety: 2nd Ed. 2nd. Ed. Tulsa, OK: Pennwell; 2010.

Dunn, V. (2007). The strategy of firefighting. Tulsa, OK: PenWell.

Hill HJ. Failure Point: How to Determine Burning Building Stability. PennWell Publishing Company; 2012.

NFPA 220: Standard on Types of Building Construction. (06.2018).

I am the Problem.

I am the problem. Other women like me, who want to put a stop to all the noise and just do the job, are the problem. Sometimes, the problem is the solution.

Some of you will not like what I’m about to say, and that’s okay. I’ll make this clear, I don’t care. You don’t agree with me? You’re entitled to your opinion, but remember, I am too. What’s not acceptable is attacking someone for having opinions that differ from yours. We fight for rights for women and call ourselves “feminists” but attack the nearest one who dares to differ from our opinion. Well, I’m done with that conversation. So here we go: it’s 2020 and you’re a woman in the fire service, you’re the first for your department, or you just ran your first all girl crew? Congrats, I don’t care. What I do care about is what you did to earn that spot, and what you will continue to do to make yourself and the job better.

The constant back and forth battle of what women should call themselves is frustrating, exhausting, and frankly has no place in today’s fire service. I’m angry that it takes priority in conversations. Why, when I share an article on building construction, is the primary feedback the fact that the title says “Fireman” instead of “Firefighter”? Why are we not focused on the real problem, that the majority of us don’t fully understand the buildings we’re crawling in to? Are we really that insecure of our place in the industry that we are defined by a word? They say spite is just motivated anger, so trigger warning: I am a female, and I am a fireman. Merriam Webster defines fireman as “a member of a fire department.” I love the tradition of the word. Don’t lecture me on how the “traditional” fire service doesn’t include women. At the time you are referring to where there were few to no women on the job, there were hardly any women in the work force. It’s not a fair comparison, and frankly taking it out of context. Some say we could choose to use the word firefighter to be more “inclusive.” If you choose to, good for you, as a fellow fireman says, “there’s no right or wrong in the fire service: just best, better, and different.”

Before you attack me, understand that I have the right to have this opinion. I was the first female on both my volunteer and paid departments. The guys had to get used to having a “girl” around. We have an open bunk and locker room, they had to adjust where they change and sleep. I didn’t ask for it, but they hung curtains at the ends of the beds for privacy- for everyone. We have one bathroom which is used to shower. There’s now a flip sign hung that we can change from men to women. They had to order smaller everything, from turnout gear to EMS gloves. I in turn had to prove myself to my guys, that I had what it takes; both mentally and physically to do the job. But here’s the thing, every new hire does. That’s not some sexist “prove your worth” thing because I am a woman. There is unfortunately a stereotype about women in the industry. I firmly believe this discussion fuels that problem. I like to think I proved that definition didn’t fit me, and that I’m just another member of the crew.

I have one question: we’re not supposed to call ourselves firemen, are we not allowed to use the word “woman” anymore either? God forbid it has the word “man” in it. Must I refer to myself simply as “female” instead? If you can’t see that there are more important things for us to be worried about than what we call ourselves, then you and I are not going to get along. It’s been proven to me more times that I can count that the people who focus on telling you who they are, more than what they know, don’t really know anything. So I’m taking the advice of others before me and trying not to let my emotions be the messenger. But let’s be real; being triggered by a simple word tells me a lot of what I need to know about you. Keyboard warriors who sit behind a screen and belittle those who are trying to do the work. Well ladies, it’s really no surprise to me: soft hands equal soft feelings.

We’ve spent decades trying to earn our place as “equal to men,” yet for some women, when they enter the fire service they suddenly want to be treated as different. With the exception of properly fitting gear, which I’ll admit is sometimes hard to find, you should have zero expectations as far as the department making changes for you. I hear complaining on physical fitness standards, how they’re aimed at failing women. How expectations and standards should be lowered because “a woman couldn’t possibly pass that.” No lady, just put in the extra effort. Firefighting is hard, the standards should be hard to meet too. Plaster and lathe isn’t going to suddenly overhaul itself when you swing the axe and it realizes you’re not a man. I have failed more physical agility tests than I want to admit. But did I go back to the department and demand they change them? No. I trained harder until I was able to pass.

We demand private sleeping arrangements and bathrooms like we think every male we work with is going to attack us or violate our privacy. Don’t get me wrong, I know that stuff happens, but it’s not the majority, and it has the potential to happen in any job. It’s not unreasonable to want a bathroom door with a lock to shower or change, but you shouldn’t expect your department to give you your own space just because you’re a woman. How many restaurants or stores have you gone too that had single stall restrooms that were gender neutral? God forbid you have a hazmat fire run, or biohazard EMS call and you have to strip down in the bay- if you can’t trust your guys to be respectful of you in a sports bra and underwear, why in the world are we trusting them on a fire run in people’s homes, or in the back of a medic alone with a patient?

I fully respect and understand those of you who came before us and paved the way. I look up to you and appreciate the struggles you went through to join a male dominated industry. I’m honored to have met some of you, and call a special few my friends and mentors. Some of you had vastly different experiences than most are today. I’m not going to discount that. I understand that 20+ years ago being a female in the fire service was an uphill battle that probably felt like you were climbing Mount Everest. I also understand that everyone’s experiences are different, but focusing on the problem doesn’t make it go away. It’s all about perception. So instead of continuing to focus on gender as some obstacle we must overcome (as if you can control it) focus on being better at the job. Today there are still some uphill battles, I myself have had to explain that “no sir, I’m not just an EMT.” And “yes ma’am they do let girls drive the trucks now.” I once even had to explain to a guest in our station that I wasn’t “in my place in the kitchen,” I was the driver that day, which meant I was in charge of cooking. But do I dwell on this and let it warp my opinion of the industry and those we serve? No, I laugh it off and move on.

Honestly, I’ve been torn down more by other women in the industry than men. Why is it that as “powerful women” we claim to support each other and want equality, yet the dogs attack if opinions differ. I’ve had tenured woman tell me that I’m too new to understand, as if I haven’t had some of my own hills to climb. I’ve been told to “come back and talk too me after 25 years,” as if after all that time I’ll be a hardened man-hater. I don’t need to be on the job for 25 years to know that if men had a group called “Masculine Male Firemen” there would be an uproar of hatred. I respect the point of groups where there are only women, it’s a place to allow individuals to ask personal questions and get support. However, lately most of what I’ve seen has included mostly bashing on men or ranting about how “poorly” women are treated. I think they’ve lost sight of their purpose. I also don’t need to be at retirement to tell you that the most important thing to know about someone isn’t their title, but their experience and what they did for others. Principles have no tenure.

Let’s have a history lesson. Women have been in the fire service in the U.S. for over 200 years. The first known was Molly Williams in 1815. Molly was an African American slave who became a member of Oceanus Engine Company #11 in New York City. The first documented all-women’s fire brigade was at Girton Ladies’ College in Great Britain from 1878-1932. From 1910-1920 there were all women volunteer fire companies in Maryland and California, and another formed in Texas in the 1960s. With the passing of the Civil Rights Act, the first career women firefighters were hired in the1960s.This being said, I will never understand why in 2020 is it still such a huge deal when a woman is hired on a department, or when a truck is run by women. Why we scream for inclusivity and equality, but then purposefully say “look at me I’m a girl.” In the thickness of smoke and sweat your only identity is your ability.

I go to work everyday with the intention of setting myself apart, not to be better than the guys I work with, but to be better than I was my last shift. Your goal should be to set yourself apart by your work ethic, not your gender. So instead of focusing on what we are, let’s focus on things we can change. The public doesn’t care if you’re a man or a woman. What they do care about is if you can do the job when the time comes. So instead of focusing on trivial issues, lets take our attention to the thing that matters most: quality, realistic, and relevant training. Let’s focus on on the community we serve, and remember “nobody gives a shit what you are on the fireground as long as you’re capable.”

Move with a purpose.

There is a quote that says, “a truly great mentor is hard to find, difficult to part with, and impossible to forget.”

One of those men is LT. Tony McLain.

From day one of my fire academy, I was blessed with great instructors. Each in their own way, representing what I want to be as a fireman. They worked hard, had a sense of humor, cared a lot about the guy standing next to them, and most importantly the public they served. They didn’t care about recognition and didn’t think they were anything special. They are just a group of firemen that love the job, and want to pass on as much as they know to the next generation. A handful of them became more than just instructors, but mentors, and Tony was one of them. From his constant repeat of “and things like that” while giving a lecture, to walking around yelling “gasket” every time we reloaded hose, to jokes about me showing up the guys; working with and learning from him was a never-ending source of education and entertainment. He had a way of giving you crap one minute, and teaching you an important lesson the next. He took the job seriously, and expected you to do the same. Work hard, but have fun when you were done.

Honestly, I credit a huge part of why I’m on the job today to him. I was at the tail end of my fire academy, and had the opportunity to apply to my department. I knew I wanted to be on the job, but I wasn’t convinced I was ready. I voiced these and other concerns to him one night after class. I don’t remember the exact words he said, but it was something along the lines of quit doubting yourself, you’re ready. Hearing someone I respected as much as him tell me they had faith in my abilities as a fireman gave me the courage I needed to apply. A year later when the offer finally came, I needed a little nudge from another mentor to take the plunge and accept the offer…but I wouldn’t have even tried if it wasn’t for Tony.

On the fireground you would frequently hear Tony say, “move with a purpose.” And you knew that meant you better get your ass in gear. He didn’t meant run around like an idiot, but to move quickly and efficiently. Do the job you were trained to do, the right way, no shortcuts. You knew if he was saying it, he expected more from you. I’m a big fan of quotes and I came to love what he said. I have no idea if he meant it as more than just a motivator to get moving on the fireground, but I began to model my life after that quote. I still try to live by that saying every single day, in all that I do.

“Move with a purpose” became a life motto, a reminder of a good fireman, and a way to stay focused. Is what you’re doing right now helping you to accomplish your goals? Are you doing something everyday to make yourself a better fireman, a better person? Are you putting the citizens you serve before yourself? Are you focusing on making things better, or wrapped up in the things you can’t control? Are you eating healthy and staying physically fit so you’re stronger on the fireground tomorrow? Is what you’re doing right now helping you continue to earn the title of “firefighter for the city of xxx”? Are you regularly doing relevant and realistic training? Tony’s mantra became more than just something to yell at the guys standing around on the fireground, but a central part of my everyday life.

On November 21st, 2018 the world lost a great fireman, mentor, brother, and more importantly husband and father. It’s still hard to believe that I can’t walk into his office and get some joke about my relatives or showing up the guys. I do know for certain that the world lost an entertaining, knowledgeable, caring, and passionate individual. He was a great fireman and an excellent teacher. I am extremely grateful to his family for sharing him with the fire service, and in supporting him spending his free time teaching the next generation of firemen like myself. Unfortunately, I didn’t take the opportunity to tell him this when I had the chance. So if you do nothing else today, tell your mentors thank you, and how much you appreciate all that they’ve done for you.

I had hoped to be able to work with and learn more from him in the future, however I am forever thankful for the time I had learning from him. We are all better for having known him.

If one day I am half the instructor and mentor to future firemen as he was to me, I will call it a success.

Until then, I’ll keep moving with a purpose.

RIP LT.